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Maisto papildai ir krevečių spalvą

Maisto papildai ir krevečių spalvą

Krevečių veisėjai visada žvelgia į būdus, kaip pagerinti krevečių spalvą ir ryškumą. Nors kruopštus veisimas ir atranka vaidina svarbų vaidmenį tobulo ir spalvingo atspalvio išgavimui, pakalbėkime apie tai, ką bet kas iš mūsų gali pakeisti krevečių dietoje, kad pagerintume pigmento kokybę. Čia pagrindinę rolę vaidina karotinoidai.


Karotinoidai - tai daugiau kaip 600 natūralių, tirpių pigmentų, gaminamų mikrodumblių, fitoplanktono ir kituose augaluose.. Šių pigmentai bei baltymai  augaluose, vėžiagyviuose ar žuvyse, atsako už geltona ir raudona spalvas, bei formuoja plataus diapazono mėlynos, žalios, violetinės, rudos ir rausvos spalvos tonus.

Tačiau krevetės negali pačios gaminti karotinoidų, tarp jų ir astaksantino, tik augalai ir protistai (bakterijos, dumbliai, grybai) gali sintezuoti karotinoidus.

Ar kada nors susidomėjote, kodėl paruoštų valgyti krevečių spalva yra raudona? Tai būtent karotinoidu sąveika su proteinais. Dėl aukštos temperatūros karotinoidų ir proteinų ryšis nutrūksta, karotinoido rausva spalva, dažniausiai astaksantino, pakeičia natūralią proteino spalvą.

Dekoratyvinių krevečių šeimoje pigmentai randami odelėje (kiaute) arba specializuotose ląstelėse - chromatoforuose. Chromatoforai dažniausiai yra atsakingi už spalvą, esančią po oda, giliau kūne.

Chromatoforai skirstomi į keturias pagrindines kategorijas:

Juodieji chromatoforai, kurių sudėtyje yra ommochromų, kurie sugeria šviesą
Raudoni chromatoforai, paprastai turintys astaksantino
Geltoni chromatoforai, kurių sudėtyje paprastai yra liuteino
Balti chromatoforai, kurių sudėtyje yra pterinų arba flavinų, kurie atspindi šviesą
 
Astaksantinas yra vienas iš galingiausių karotinoidų. Krevečių grupės, kurioms buvo taikoma astaksantino dieta, pasižymėjo geresniais išgyvenamumo rodikliais. Manoma, kad tiesioginė koreliacija tarp išgyvenimo ir pigmento koncentracijos įmanoma, nes karotinoidai veikia kaip tarpląstelinis deguonies rezervas.
Krevetės, kurioms buvo taikoma 100 mg / kg aksaksantino dieta, parodė vidutinį išgyvenimo lygį 77%, palyginus su krevečių grupe, kuri buvo maitinama beta karotino priedu - apie 40% (Chien 1996).

Kaip papildomą šio karotinoido naudą, galima paminėti antioksidanto ir provitamino A savybes. Taip pat imuninio atsako, reprodukcijos, augimo, brendimo, fotoprotezavimo ir apsaugą nuo hipoksinių sąlygų.

Astaksantinas yra labai svarbus papildas krevetėms, nes jis pagerina ne tik spalvą, bet ir gerina išgyvenimo galimybes.


Red cherry krevetėms 8 savaites buvo taikoma astaksantino dieta ir buvo laikomos ant trijų skirtingu spalvų grunto, balto, raudono ir juodo.

Po 8 savaičių tyrėjai galėjo lengvai stebėti spalvų skirtumą, svorio priaugimą ir išgyvenimą.

 

                   Pav.1 Karotinoidu kiekis palyginus su kontrolinė grupė ant trijų grunto spalvų.

 

     Pav.2 Red Cherry krevečių spalva laikomu ant astaksantino dietos.

 

                       Pav.3 Svorio palyginimas ant trijų skirtingu spalvų grunto.

                     Pav. 4 Augimo greičio palyginimas ant trijų skirtingu spalvų grunto.

 

 

Taip pat yra keletą įdomių ir neakivaizdžių astaksantino šaltinių. Paprikoje yra ksantofilų, beta karotino, beta cryptoksantino, kapsantino ir kapsorubino (E160c), kurių dalį galima pamažu paversti astaksantinu.
Astaksantino yra daugelyje krevetėms skirtų komercinių pašarų sudėtyje, pagamintų tokiose kompanijose kaip Dennerle, Shirakura, MK Breed, Garnelenhaus, Lowkeys, Qualdrop.

Taip pat krevečių racioną galite papildyti kitais karotinoidais naudodami natūralias alternatyvas. Natūralūs užkandžiai krevetėms, kurių sudėtyje yra karotinoidų: medetkų žiedlapiai, moliūgai, morkos, špinatai, šilkmedžio lapai, kiaulpienės, moringa, kale kopūstai.

Šaltiniai:

Goodwin T.W. The Biochemistry of the Carotenoids, 2nd ed., Chapman and Hall, London, 1984, pp. 64-96

A Review of the Carotenoid, Astaxanthin, as a Pigment and Vitamin Source for Cultured Penaeus Prawn By Todd Lorenz, Ph.D

Matsuno T. and S. Hirao. Marine Carotenoids, in “Marine Biogenc Lipids, Fats, and Oils” (ed. by R. G. Ackman), Vol. 1, CRC Press, Florida, 1989, pp. 251-388.

Effect of Dietary Astaxanthin and Background Color on Pigmentation and Growth of Red Cherry Shrimp, Neocaridina heteropoda

Department of Animal Production Technology and Fisheries Faculty of Agricultural Technology,

Nongnuch Laohavisuti and Uscharee Ruangdej

Remarkable Shrimps: Adaptations and Natural History of the Carideans Raymond T. Bauer

 

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